Hindi: Guttural Consonants: क, ख, ग, घ, ङ

When starting from the beginning in my Hindi studies, I learned an interesting concept about the arrangement of the Hindi alphabet: there is a reason the letters are in such an order. It is based on articulation of the consonants. I'm no linguist, but my understanding is that the consonants go in groups in this order: guttural; palatal; cerebral; dental; labial; approximant; fricative. Basically, but not entirely, this goes from the back of the throat (guttural) to the lips (labial). I'll lay it out in steps.

The first five consonants -- क, ख, ग, घ, ङ -- are guttural consonants (Wikipedia Guttural). Guttural consonants are articulated in the throat. The first four are easy to say for a Midwestern American -- most of them, of at least.

ka, /k/

kha, /kh/

क is said with no aspiration, i.e., with no puff of breath when you say it. That requires practice for me. When I say words like kite, I aspirate the k. ख is said with aspiration.

ga, /g/

gha, /gh/

Again, ग is said with no aspiration, घ is said with aspiration.

ṅa, /ŋ/

ङ is a nasal consonant. You'll never see it at the start of a word. You'll never see it on its own. You'll rarely see it in text.

Stop Nasal Approximant Fricative
Unvoiced Voiced Unvoiced Voiced
Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated
Guttural ka /k/ kha /kh/ ga /g/ gha /gh/ ṅa /ŋ/ ha /h,ɦ/
Palatal ca /c,ʧ/ cha /chh/ ja /ɟ,ʤ/ jha hh/ ña /ɲ/ ya /j/ śa /ɕ,ʃ/
Cerebral ṭa /ʈ/ ṭha h/ ḍa /ɖ/ ḍha h/ ṇa /ɳ/

ra /r/

ṣa /ʂ/
Dental ta /t̪/ tha /t̪h/ da /d̪/ dha /d̪h/ na /n/ la /l/ sa /s/
Labial pa /p/ pha /ph/ ba /b/ bha /bh/ ma /m/ va /ʋ/

I am archiving this information about the alphabet on the Hindi page: kirkkittell.com/language/hindi. More information from Wikipedia:

Note type:




bhut bdiya hai .. ka kha gha

bhai mujhe hindi ka poora a to z chat chahiye



kya yar mujhe to aata hi nahi hai

waooooooo hai to to...maja aya....

haan kya....aisa....badhiya h aish karo sab...

aap ko pata hogi to bhej do yaar

agar apko pata hogi to pleas bhej dijiye na

Add new comment